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Disease insights

Understanding and defining the characteristics of retinal diseases are crucial steps to ensuring optimal diagnosis and treatment. Clinical decisions should be guided by disease characteristics and should aim to achieve an optimal outcome. In this resource zone, we provide guidance on the characteristics and definitions of various retinal diseases:

  • The definition and pathogenesis of pachychoroid in nAMD/PCV
  • Characterization of AMD subtypes to optimize treatment outcomes

Pachychoroid: current concepts on clinical features and pathogenesis

The term “pachychoroid” refers to a phenotype in which functional and structural changes within the choroid are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of a spectrum of related retinal disorders known as the “pachychoroid spectrum”.

The Vision Academy’s newly published article in Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology describes the commonalities that are present across pathologies included in the pachychoroid spectrum, and discusses current knowledge on the examination, monitoring, and management of these disorders.

Read the Vision Academy publication on the current concepts and clinical features and pathogenesis of pachychoroid

Characterization of AMD subtypes to optimize treatment outcomes

Defining and differentiating AMD subtypes is important in the management of AMD and ensuring optimal response to treatment. The Vision Academy aims to provide an expert consensus on the definition and characteristics of various AMD subtypes and is developing recommendations on treatments tailored to features of the disease.


Watch the tutorial video describing the pathophysiology of nAMD and the characterization of its subtypes. Interpretations of nAMD lesions using diagnostic tools such as OCT and OCT-A are also provided. 

Elsewhere in the resource zone